[Translation by Binyamin S Silver]
Everyone is obligated to visit the Holy Temple on Holidays except for a (Chereish) deaf-mute person, the (Shoteh) mentally challenged, minors, the non-gendered and bi-gendered, women, slaves who are not free, an amputee of the leg(s), a blind person, a sick person, an elderly person and someone who cannot go on his (own) legs.
Who is a minor? Anyone who cannot ride on his father’s shoulders and (thereby) go up to Yerushalayim to the Temple Mount (is called a minor). This is Beis Shamai’s answer. Beis Hillel says that anyone who cannot hold his father’s hand and (thereby) go to Yerushalayim to the Temple Mount (is called a minor). (His Scriptural proof is) as it says: 3 Regalim (Regalim having the dual meaning of times and legs).
(First draft) Beis Shamai says that the Ri’iyah (being seen in the temple on the holidays sacrifice) is 2 silver pieces and the Chagigah (celebration of the holiday sacrifice) is 1 silver piece. Beis Hillel says that the Ri’iyah is 1 silver piece and the Chagigah is 2 silver pieces.
(Second Draft) Beis Shamai says that the Ri’iyah (the obligatory sacrifice for being seen (ri’iyah in Hebrew), which is the obligation we are discussing throughout this Mishnah) is (carries a cost of) 2 silver pieces (2 Ma’ah in Hebrew) and the Chagigah (the sacrifice with which we celebrate the holiday, as part is eaten by the owners and part is ‘given’ to G-d) is (carries a cost of) 1 silver piece. Beis Hillel says that the Ri’iyah is 1 silver piece and the Chagigah is 2 silver pieces.
(The use of the wording of) Everyone (being obligated) includes (whom)? It includes someone who is half a slave and half a free person.
According to Ravina, who says that someone who is half a slave and half a free person is exempt from the obligation to be seen (in the Temple), who is included (by the use of the word everyone [is obligated])? It includes someone who was lame (unable to walk) on the first day (of the holiday) and became able to walk on the second day.
(Ravina’s explanation) fits well with the opinion that each day of the festival provides an opportunity to submit the obligatory sacrifice, however, according to the opinion that each day (only) provides an opportunity to submit the obligatory sacrifice (that was due) on the first day (and someone who was exempt i.e. a lame person, would therefore not fit our criteria of ‘everyone’ being obligated), who does the term ‘everyone’ refer to? It refers to (i.e. it includes in the obligation) someone who is blind in (only) one eye and this does not concur with (a-as-yet unstated) Tana. As it says in a Braisa, Yochanan ben (son of) Dahavai says in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, a blind person in (only) one eye is exempt from
with two eyes (i.e. perfect vision), so too, to ‘see’ G-d, must be with two eyes.
(Next challenge) If you will challenge saying that in reality it is as we said in the beginning (regarding someone half free and half slave), and (with regards) to your question that Ravina (exempts such a person), it is not a question (problem). In one scenario we are dealing with the first draft, and in another scenario we are dealing with the second draft, as it has been stated in a Mishna (elsewhere), Someone who is half slave and half free, (should) work for his owner one day and for himself the other day. This is the opinion of Beis Hillel. Beis Shamai said (in reply) to them,
you have fixed (helped) his owner, but himself you have not fixed (helped). To Marry a slave-woman, he is unable (due to the laws governing such relationships), to marry a free woman he (also) cannot (again due to the laws governing suchs relationships). Should he be idle (unmarried)? But wasn’t the world created only for being fruitful and multiplying? As it says not for emptiness was it (the world) created, (but rather) to settle (the world) was it formed. Rather, for the sake of fixing (keeping the world going in an orderly and good fashion), we force the owner and make him (the slave) a (completely) free person and write for him a document for the amount of half his (monetary) value. (Thereupon) Beis Hillel retracted and began teaching according to the words (opinion) of Beis Shamai.
Quote from our Mishnah
&except for a lame person, mentally handicapped individual and a minor, etc&
It taught (that) a deaf-mute person is comparable to a mentally handicapped person and a minor. Just like a mentally handicapped persona and a minor are not fully cognizant, so too, a deaf-mute is not fully cognizant, and this was taught in a Mishnah (elsewhere), The deaf-mutes that the Sages speak about in all places are incapable of hearing and incapable of speaking, however, one who can speak but not hear, hear but not speak, is obligated.
There is (another) statement that disagrees with the statement (just quoted), as it says in a Braisa, someone who can speak but can’t hear, this is what is termed (see Hebrew text) a ‘Chereish’, (while) someone who can hear but cannot speak is referred by the term ‘Ileim’. Both (Cheireish and Ileim) are like normal people for all things. And from where do we get that someone who speak but cannot hear is called a Cheireish and someone who can hear but cannot speak is called an Ileim? As it says in a Pasuk verse, And I am like a Cheireish, not hearing, and like an Ileim, (that) doesn’t open his mouth.
And if you would (prefer), say it is like the common saying, quieted from speaking (an expanded version of the Hebrew word for Ileim i.e. that Ileim serves as an abbreviation for the saying).
Quote from last section
&someone who can speak but cannot hear (and) someone who can hear but cannot speak is
This disagrees with what was taught in a Braisa (elsewhere). someone who can speak but cannot hear (and) someone who can hear but cannot speak is exempt. Ravina interjects, and some say it was Rava (who interjected), that this last statement is missing parts and this is how it should read: Everyone is obligated in the ‘being seen’ sacrifice and in rejoicing (on the holidays) except for a Cheireish that speaks but cannot hear and one that hears but cannot speak, who are exempt from the Ri’iyah (’being seen sacrifice’), and even though they are exempt from this sacrifice, they are obligated in rejoicing, and someone who can neither hear nor speak, and a mentally handicapped individual and a minor are exempt even from rejoicing because they are exempt from all Mitzvos that are mentioned in the Torah. This can be corroborated by what it says in a Braisa, that, “All are obligated in the ‘being seen’ sacrifice and in rejoicing (on the holiday) except for a Cheireish that speaks but cannot hear and a Cheireish that can hear but cannot speak, who are exempt from the Ri’iyah, and even though they are exempt from the Ri’iyah
are obligated in rejoicing.